Milford, now extremely unwell and reeling under a series of personal bereavements, was prevailed upon to stay till the end of the war and keep the business going. As before, everything was in short supply, but the U-boat threat made shipping doubly uncertain, and the letterbooks are full of doleful records of consignments lost at sea. Occasionally an author, too, would be reported missing or dead, as well as staff who were now scattered over the battlefields of the globe.
DORA, the Defence of the Realm Act , required the surrender of all nonessential metal for the manufacture of armaments, and many valuable electrotype plates were melted down by government order. With the end of the war Milford's place was taken by Geoffrey Cumberlege. This period saw consolidation in the face of the breakup of the Empire and the post-war reorganization of the Commonwealth.
In tandem with institutions like the British Council , OUP began to reposition itself in the education market. Subsequently, it took over marketing of all books of its parent from Macmillan. The North American branch grew in sales between and , eventually becoming one of the leading university presses in the United States.
It is focused on scholarly and reference books, Bibles, and college and medical textbooks. In the s, this office moved from Madison Avenue a building it shared with Putnam Publishing to Madison Avenue, which was the former B. Altman and Company headquarters. In December Cobb returned and rendered his accounts for his Asia trip that year.
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Cobb then proposed to Milford that the Press join a combination of firms to send commercial travellers around South America, to which Milford in principle agreed. Cobb obtained the services of a man called Steer first name unknown to travel through Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and possibly other countries as well, with Cobb to be responsible for Steer. Steer's trip was a disaster, and Milford remarked gloomily that it 'bid fair to be the most costly and least productive on record' of all traveller's trips.
The Press was obliged to disburse 80 percent of the value of the books he had carried as 'incidental expenses', so even if they had got substantial orders they would still have made a loss. Few orders did in fact come out of the trip, and when Steer's box of samples returned, the London office found that they had not been opened further down than the second layer.
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While actual purchase of this series was beyond the means of most Indians, libraries usually had a set, generously provided by the government of India, available on open reference shelves, and the books had been widely discussed in the Indian press. It was there to serve the vast educational market created by the rapidly expanding school and college network in British India. In spite of disruptions caused by war, it won a crucial contract to print textbooks for the Central Provinces in and this helped to stabilize its fortunes in this difficult phase.
Rieu could not longer delay his callup and was drafted in , the management then being under his wife Nellie Rieu, a former editor for the Athenaeum 'with the assistance of her two British babies. At one point non-governmental composition at Oxford was reduced to 32 pages a week. By , Rieu was very ill and had to be brought home.
He was replaced by Geoffrey Cumberlege and Noel Carrington. Noel was the brother of Dora Carrington , the artist, and even got her to illustrate his Stories Retold edition of Don Quixote for the Indian market. Their father Charles Carrington had been a railway engineer in India in the nineteenth century. By there were makeshift depots at Madras and Calcutta. In , Noel Carrington went to Calcutta to set up a proper branch.
There he became friendly with Edward Thompson who involved him in the abortive scheme to produce the 'Oxford Book of Bengali Verse'. OUP's interaction with this area was part of their mission to India, since many of their travellers took in East and South East Asia on their way out to or back from India. Graydon on his first trip in had travelled the 'Straits Settlements' largely the Federated Malay States and Singapore , China, and Japan, but was not able to do much. In , A.
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Cobb visited teachers and booksellers in Shanghai, and found that the main competition there was cheap books from America, often straight reprints of British books. To secure copyright in both territories publishers had to arrange for simultaneous publication, an endless logistical headache in this age of steamships. Prior publication in any one territory forfeited copyright protection in the other.
They also traded with Edward Evans, another Shanghai bookseller. Milford observed, 'we ought to do much more in China than we are doing' and authorized Cobb in to find a replacement for Henzell as their representative to the educational authorities. Verne McNeely, a redoubtable lady who was a member of the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge , and also ran a bookshop. She looked after the affairs of the Press very capably and occasionally sent Milford boxes of complimentary cigars.
Bibles were the major item of trade in China, unlike India where educational books topped the lists, even if Oxford's lavishly produced and expensive Bible editions were not very competitive beside cheap American ones. In the s, once the Indian Branch was up and running, it became the custom for staff members going out or returning to take a tour of East and South East Asia. Milford's nephew R. Christopher Bradby went out in He returned to Britain just in time, for on 18 October , the Japanese invaded Manchuria. Miss M. Verne McNeely wrote a letter of protest to the League of Nations and one of despair to Milford, who tried to comfort her.
The Maruzen company was by far the largest customer, and had a special arrangement regarding terms. Other business was routed through H. Griffiths, a professional publishers' representative based in Sannomiya , Kobe. Griffiths travelled for the Press to major Japanese schools and bookshops and took a 10 percent commission.
Edmund Blunden had been briefly at the University of Tokyo and put the Press in touch with the university booksellers, Fukumoto Stroin. One important acquisition did come from Japan, however: A. Hornby 's Advanced Learner's Dictionary. It also publishes textbooks for the primary and secondary education curriculum in Hong Kong.
Some trade with East Africa passed through Bombay. Its territory includes Botswana , Lesotho , Swaziland and Namibia , as well as South Africa , the biggest market of the five.
OUP Southern Africa is now one of the three biggest educational publishers in South Africa, and focuses its attention on publishing textbooks, dictionaries, atlases and supplementary material for schools, and textbooks for universities. Its author base is overwhelmingly local, and in it entered into a partnership with the university to support scholarships for South Africans studying postgraduate degrees.
Prior to the twentieth century, the Press at Oxford had occasionally printed a piece of music or a book relating to musicology. It had also published the Yattendon Hymnal in and, more significantly, the first edition of The English Hymnal in , under the editorship of Percy Dearmer and the then largely unknown Ralph Vaughan Williams. Such musical publishing enterprises, however, were rare: "In nineteenth-century Oxford the idea that music might in any sense be educational would not have been entertained",  and few of the Delegates or former Publishers were themselves musical or had extensive music backgrounds.
In the London office, however, Milford had musical taste, and had connections particularly with the world of church and cathedral musicians. In , Milford hired Hubert J. Foss , originally as an assistant to Educational Manager V. In that work, Foss showed energy and imagination. However, as Sutcliffe says, Foss, a modest composer and gifted pianist, "was not particularly interested in education; he was passionately interested in music.
There is no clear record of the thought process whereby the Press would enter into the publishing of music for performance. Foss's presence, and his knowledge, ability, enthusiasm, and imagination may well have been the catalyst bringing hitherto unconnected activities together in Milford's mind, as another new venture similar to the establishment of the overseas branches. Milford may not have fully understood what he was undertaking. A fiftieth anniversary pamphlet published by the Music Department in says that OUP had "no knowledge of the music trade, no representative to sell to music shops, and—it seems—no awareness that sheet music was in any way a different commodity from books.
He bought the Anglo-French Music Company and all its facilities, connections, and resources. He hired Norman Peterkin, a moderately well-known musician, as full-time sales manager for music.
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And in he established as a separate division the Music Department, with its own offices in Amen House and with Foss as first Musical Editor. Then, other than general support, Milford left Foss largely to his own devices. Foss responded with incredible energy. He worked to establish "the largest possible list in the shortest possible time",  adding titles at the rate of over a year; eight years later there were titles in the catalogue.
In the year of the department's establishment, Foss began a series of inexpensive but well edited and printed choral pieces under the series title "Oxford Choral Songs". This series, under the general editorship of W. Whittaker, was OUP's first commitment to the publishing of music for performance, rather than in book form or for study.
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The series plan was expanded by adding the similarly inexpensive but high-quality "Oxford Church Music" and "Tudor Church Music" taken over from the Carnegie UK Trust ; all these series continue today. The scheme of contributed essays Foss had originally brought to Milford appeared in as the Heritage of Music two more volumes would appear over the next thirty years.
Percy Scholes 's Listener's Guide to Music originally published in was similarly brought into the new department as the first of a series of books on music appreciation for the listening public. Perhaps most importantly, Foss seemed to have a knack for finding new composers of what he regarded as distinctively English music , which had broad appeal to the public. This concentration provided OUP two mutually reinforcing benefits: a niche in music publishing unoccupied by potential competitors, and a branch of music performance and composition that the English themselves had largely neglected.
Hinnells proposes that the early Music Department's "mixture of scholarship and cultural nationalism" in an area of music with largely unknown commercial prospects was driven by its sense of cultural philanthropy given the Press's academic background and a desire to promote "national music outside the German mainstream. In what the Press called "the most durable gentleman's agreement in the history of modern music,"  Foss guaranteed the publication of any music that Vaughan Williams would care to offer them.
In addition, Foss worked to secure OUP's rights not only to music publication and live performance, but the "mechanical" rights to recording and broadcast. It was not at all clear at the time how significant these would become. Indeed, Foss, OUP, and a number of composers at first declined to join or support the Performing Right Society , fearing that its fees would discourage performance in the new media. Later years would show that, to the contrary, these forms of music would prove more lucrative than the traditional venues of music publishing.
Whatever the Music Department's growth in quantity, breadth of musical offering, and reputation amongst both musicians and the general public, the whole question of financial return came to a head in the s.
nnyjobs.com/2958-cell-number.php Milford as London publisher had fully supported the Music Department during its years of formation and growth.